Starting to drive is a memorable moment in many people’s lives. But when’s the right time to stop?
It’s something we don’t really talk about, but as we get older our ability to drive can worsen.
It could be due to medical conditions, a decline in our health, or being physically unable to manage car journeys. At some stage, many of us will have to accept that our driving days are behind us.
In this guide we look at the legal requirements for driving, how health can affect your ability behind the wheel and tips on deciding when it’s time to stop.
- An introduction to driving for seniors
- How dementia affects driving ability
- When is it the right time to give up driving?
- Useful links & further information
An introduction to driving for seniors
Drivers over 70 years old are more likely to be at fault when it comes to an accident on the road. The Royal Society for the Prevention of Accidents
Can you continue to drive as you get older?
There’s no age at which the law says you must stop driving. So long as you remain in good general health and have no medical conditions that affect your ability to drive, it’s essentially up to you when to stop.
However, when you turn 70 your driving licence expires and will need to be renewed if you wish to continue driving. The DVLA should get in touch 90 days before your 70th birthday. From then on you’ll need to renew your driving licence every three years. At this age, your health is more likely to rapidly change than when you were younger. Renewing your licence as an elderly driver helps ensure your safety and the safety of other road users.
Statistics highlight there’s a higher risk of being involved in an accident after you turn 70. Up until then, drivers are no more likely to cause a crash than be the victim of another road user’s mistake – but drivers over 70 are actually more likely to be at fault.
Legal requirements for driving in the UK
Regardless of age, to drive in the UK you need a valid driving licence, insurance, an MOT certificate (where applicable), and road tax.
Did you know?
The NHS offers free eye tests to people over the age of 60. Those aged between 60 and 70 are entitled to a free test every two years. Those over 70 can get a free test every year.
In addition to renewing your licence when you’re over 70, there are some considerations applicable to older drivers. Firstly, you must be able to read a number plate from 20.5 metres – if you need glasses or contact lenses to see this far you’ll be legally required to wear them when you drive.
You also need to inform the Driver & Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA) about any medical conditions that could affect your ability to drive. Professionals, such as GPs and opticians, may offer guidance as to when you need to contact the organisation.
Generally speaking, if anything changes in your health and wellbeing that could affect your driving ability, you should seek advice from the DVLA.
Medical conditions that can affect driving ability
It’s a driver’s legal responsibility to make the DVLA aware of certain medical conditions that could impact their driving. You can find a full list of conditions on the Gov.uk website, but we’ve highlighted some common age-related conditions:
- Arthritis. Making your joints swollen, stiff and painful, arthritis can limit movement. Common affected areas that present challenges to driving include hands, feet, back, hips and knees.
- Alzheimer’s and dementia. Changing the way the brain works, Alzheimer’s and dementia often result in forgetfulness and disorientation. Many sufferers will not be aware of their condition, adding to the risk they pose to themselves and others by driving.
- Diabetes. Left unmanaged, diabetes can cause spells of sleepiness, dizziness and confusion, which would be dangerous when in control of a car.
- Parkinson’s disease. Although it affects people in different ways, Parkinson’s disease does have symptoms that affect movement, including tremors and stiffness, making it difficult to react quickly when driving.
- Stroke. The effects of a stroke vary. Common problems include issues with vision and memory, but can be as severe as partial paralysis. As such, driving ability could be seriously impaired.
Safety checklist for older drivers
Whatever their age, few drivers can truly say they’ve never experienced a tricky moment on the roads. It’s easy to have your confidence knocked, fall into bad habits, or simply forget the things you were taught when learning.
For older drivers, it’s worth asking a few questions to see if further support is needed:
- Do you feel confident on the roads?
- When was the last time you had a near miss?
- Have you asked if other people feel safe in your car? How do they respond?
- Are you happy to drive and park during busy times of the day? Or do you avoid driving at certain times?
- Are you comfortable with all manoeuvres, including reversing under pressure?
- Have you recently had any comments from other road users?
- Do you know speed limits and common road signs?
If your answers to these questions have made you question your driving ability, don’t panic. Some uncertainty means you might benefit from a refresher course, spending a few hours with a driving instructor to brush up on your skills. You can’t fail or pass; refresher courses are simply meant to provide additional support.
Check out the following:
- The AA’s free Drive Confidence course
- The Institute of Advanced Motorists’ Mature Driver Assessment, along with many other useful training programmes
- Private tuition with a Driving Standards Agency (DSA) registered instructor
How dementia affects driving ability
Driving gives us freedom and independence, which is why it can be difficult to cope when changes in our health affect our ability to do it.
An introduction to dementia in the UK (statistics)
Driving is a great way to get out and about, keep up with hobbies and stay in touch with friends and family. That’s why many dementia sufferers will continue to drive even though their health is declining. They might adapt their routine slightly by changing when or where they drive, rather than giving it up completely.
But not everyone can instantly recognise they have an issue with their health.
Dementia refers to a group of symptoms that affect and deteriorates brain functions - including recognition, memory, language, and planning. Symptoms of dementia gradually get worse over time, so it can be difficult to recognise the point at which it starts to affect day-to-day life.
The Alzheimer’s Society believes one in three people with dementia still drive, and that being diagnosed doesn’t necessarily mean you have to give up driving straight away. However, as dementia progresses, there’ll come a point when you should no longer be behind the wheel.
When looking at the signs of dementia, it’s easy to see how driving can be affected:
- Memory loss impacting day-to-day life
- Difficulties with planning and organising
- Losing track of time or place
- Problems with vision, speaking and writing
- Misplacing objects
- Increasingly poor judgement
- Withdrawal from work or social activities
- Changes in behaviour and personality
According to the Alzheimer’s Society, there are around 850,000 people with dementia in the UK. Worldwide, this number rises to an estimated 35.6 million.
And that’s not all:
- In the UK, the number of people with dementia is set to rise to over one million by 2025, and two million by 2051.
- One in six people over the age of 80 have dementia.
- Seventy per cent of people in care homes have dementia or severe memory problems.
- There are over 40,000 people under 65 with dementia in the UK.
Although it’s not considered a natural part of ageing and there are many factors involved, statistics indicate the chance of developing dementia increases with age.
What support is available?
Dementia is one of the main causes of disability in later life – ahead of cancer, cardiovascular disease and stroke – yet UK government spending on dementia is less than these other conditions.
According to the Alzheimer’s Society, two thirds of costs linked to dementia are actually paid for by people with the condition, their families or a combination of the two. Unpaid carers save the economy £11 billion a year.
In addition to family and friends, key sources of support include:
Charities. The leading dementia charity is the Alzheimer’s Society, which is committed to spending at least £150 million over the next decade on dementia research to improve care and help find a cure. It offers excellent support and advice for people with dementia and their families.
Other dementia charities include:
- Dementia UK
Alzheimer’s Research UK
- Admiral nurses. Registered nurses and experts in dementia care give practical, clinical and emotional support to families affected by the condition. Admiral nurses work in the community for the NHS, care homes, hospitals and hospices. They can help improve quality of life, and provide coping mechanisms. You can contact the Admiral Nursing dementia helpline on 0800 888 6678.
Covering the costs of getting around
Having additional financial support can make a real difference to people with dementia. But what could you be eligible for that might help you get around?
Personal Independence Payment (PIP) is designed to help with some of the extra costs caused by long-term ill health or disability. The Motability Scheme helps some people receiving PIP (or War Pensioners’ Mobility Supplement) to get a car, powered wheelchair or scooter. Using some or all of your mobility benefit payments, you can cover the cost of contract hire or hire purchase of an appropriate vehicle. You can also apply for discounted or free road tax to help with the costs of running a car. The NHS website has further details.
Instructing the DVLA of your medical condition
If diagnosed with dementia you’re required to tell the DVLA. You can do this by contacting them by phone, email or post. Contact details can be found on the Gov.uk website. You can also download and fill in form CG1, sending it to the address found on the form.
After speaking with your consultant or GP, medical advisers at the DVLA will decide between three options:
- Renew your licence, typically for one year before reassessment
- Cancel your licence immediately
- Request more medical information, or to ask you to take an on-road driving assessment
A DVLA driving assessment can be completed at one of 17 accredited driving assessment centres around the UK. You’ll need to go to the centre with an adult able to help you get home if necessary.
A driving assessment isn’t the same as a driving test, instead taking an overall look of how dementia is affecting your driving and whether you’re safe and comfortable enough to drive. It’s a supportive process, not a judgemental one, carried out by a specialist occupational therapist and an advanced driving instructor.
Here’s what you can expect from a driving assessment:
- An interview. Firstly, you’ll be asked about your medical and driving history, and if you think you’re having any problems with driving. As part of the interview, you’ll also have to do a short pen-and-paper test of mental abilities.
- Reaction time and limb strength test. To test you’re physically capable of steering and braking, test centres have special static 'rigs'. It’s the set-up of a car with a steering wheel and foot pedals linked to a computer, so all data can be assessed by experts. Eyesight is also checked. By this stage, some people will be found as not safe to drive. If this happens, you won’t carry on with the rest of the driving assessment.
- On-road session. Spending time on the roads is the best measure of driving ability. In a dual-braking car, you’ll drive with an advanced driving instructor who acts as a front passenger. An occupational therapist will also attend this part of the assessment as an in-car observer.
- Finding out the news. Having returned to the centre, staff will tell you their assessment. If they think you’re able to carry on driving, they’ll suggest strategies and adaptations to help improve your safety and confidence on the roads. Where the DVLA or DVA have asked for the assessment, the centre will send a report directly to them. As the licence holder, you can ask the agency for a copy too.
Your handbook for keeping safe on Britain’s roads
When someone is diagnosed with dementia, there’s always a concern as to whether that person should still be driving. This is understandable, but many people in the early stages of dementia still have the necessary skills to remain safe on the road.
The key is detecting a problem before accidents occur. Here are some of the basics to keeping safe when you’re at the steering wheel:
- Plan ahead. Know your route and plan for any stops you’ll need to make. This will minimise the stress of any journey you make. Also remember to give yourself time to adjust your seat and mirrors before you set off. Another good habit is to check the weather before you travel so you can prepare and avoid disrupted roads.
- Don’t get distracted. Multi-tasking while you’re driving simply isn’t worth the risk. Anything that takes your eyes, hands or mind off the road can cause a serious accident. That includes loud music, noisy passengers and distractions from electronic devices.
- Drive defensively. Being a defensive driver means being aware of what others around you are doing, as well as anticipating their next moves. You shouldn’t assume other drivers will follow the rules of the road, so it’s best to err on the side of caution. Always be prepared for some unpredictable driving from others.
- Look after your car. Keep an emergency kit in your car, and make sure you regularly check your key fluids, as well as the wear and tear on your tyres.
- Think about other road users. Driving safely means taking care around other road users, such as cyclists, pedestrians and horse riders.
If someone you know has been diagnosed with dementia, yet has been assessed and is still allowed to drive, there’s no harm in discreetly monitoring their driving habits if you’re concerned.
Here are some of the warning signs to look out for:
- Driving too slowly
- Stopping in traffic for no reason or ignoring traffic signs
- Becoming lost on a familiar route
- Lacking good judgement
- Difficulty with turns, lane changes, or highway exits
- Drifting into other lanes of traffic or the wrong side of the street
- Signals incorrectly (or not at all)
- Has difficulty seeing pedestrians, objects, or other vehicles
- Falls asleep while driving or gets drowsy
- Parks inappropriately
- Gets ticketed for traffic violations
- Is increasingly nervous or irritated when driving
- Has frequent accidents or near misses
When is it the right time to give up driving?
According to the Alzheimer’s Society, most people continue to drive for around three years after being diagnosed with dementia.
If you’ve been diagnosed with dementia, be aware there will likely come a time when you’ll have to stop driving. It’s your responsibility to acknowledge to the warning signs and prioritise safety over convenience.
There are things you can do to self-regulate and improve your road safety.
Avoid certain driving situations, times and types of roads. Assessing your ability might mean you stay away from driving:
- At night
- During rush hours
- Through large, busy junctions or roundabouts
- On certain types of road
For long periods of time, or on unknown routes
- Allow more time for journeys. This means you can take your time and not feel rushed or pressured to get somewhere.
- Gradually reduce the amount of driving you do. Try out buses, taxis or trains to see if you prefer travelling that way instead.
- Take regular driving assessments and refresher training.
- Learn from your mistakes. If you have a near miss, make sure you think about what you found difficult and how you could approach the situation differently next time to ensure it doesn’t happen again.
Change or adapt your car. Some adaptations might make it easier for you to drive, including:
- Steering aids
- Hand controls
- Special cushions
- Swivel seats
What does the law say about driving with dementia?
You might not realise how much dementia is affecting your ability to drive, or you might think it has no effect at all. But driving requires a complex mix of thought processes and manual skills, all of which can be affected by dementia.
Dementia symptoms get gradually worse over time, meaning they may not initially cause issues with driving. No matter, you’re still legally required to tell the DVLA. In Scotland and Ireland, you must notify the Driver & Vehicle Agency (DVA). You shouldn’t wait until your licence is due for renewal.
You could face a £1,000 fine for failing to notify the correct authorities that you have dementia. Your doctor will probably have made this clear to you, and in cases where dementia is advanced your doctor will tell you to stop driving straight away. Alternatively, your doctor might advise you to stop as a precaution until further assessments are carried out. When you notify either the DVLA or DVA, ensure you give details of your specific medical condition. That way you’ll be sent the necessary medical questionnaire to fill out.
Even if it takes the DVLA or DVA several weeks to assess your medical notes and make a final decision, you should listen to the initial advice from your doctor. GPs now have the power to contact authorities on your behalf if they feel you shouldn’t be driving. A doctor will encourage you to contact the DVLA yourself, but can inform them if they’ve exhausted all efforts to persuade you to do so.
Failure to tell your car insurance provider of your condition may invalidate your policy, and it’s a criminal offence to drive without third-party cover at a minimum.
When should someone with dementia stop driving?
You should always listen to the DVLA or your doctor if they’ve instructed you to stop driving. But it’s important to also pay attention to other signs. These include:
- Your gut instinct. Due to the convenience of driving, it can be tempting to carry on even though you know it may no longer be safe to do so. Be wary of the warning signs that suggest your driving ability is getting worse and don’t be afraid of listening to your instincts. Safety should always be the top priority.
- Advice from family, friends or carers. We don’t always want to listen to the advice of those closest to us, but it’s important to understand they’ve got our best interests at heart. Seek their advice and support.
Top safety risks and concerns
Deciding whether to stop driving is all about safety. By knowing the top safety concerns when driving with dementia you can then keep an eye on how your ability to drive changes over time.
These are some of the skills that could be affected by dementia:
- Spatial awareness. The ability to accurately judge distances between areas and cars is crucial if you are to avoid causing an accident.
- Understanding road signs. As well as remembering the rules of the road, you’ve also got to be able to read the road and know how to react accordingly.
- Reaction times. You’ve got to be able to react quickly enough to safely stop and start, and respond to the actions of other drivers.
- Attention and concentration. Driving requires you to focus on and switch between different tasks. Not having the necessary concentration levels could pose a safety risk.
- Problem-solving skills. You have to be able to respond to unplanned incidents, diversions and obstacles. If you’re not able to process and respond quickly, you could hold up traffic and create a stressful scenario for yourself.
- Judgement and decision-making. When driving, you need to interpret and anticipate what other road users are doing. Misjudging their intentions or movements is potentially dangerous.
Tips for family members and carers
Understandably, you might be worried about talking to a loved one about their driving ability, afraid to hurt their feelings or cause offence. But nothing is more important than their safety. If you think their driving ability is getting progressively worse, you should bring it up. To ensure it’s a positive conversation, bear the following tips in mind:
- Ask questions, don’t make judgements. When you feel uncomfortable or scared in someone’s car, it can be easy to make quick statements that cause more harm than good. Think about the way you word things. Rather than telling them they shouldn’t be driving at night, perhaps ask them how they feel about driving home in the dark.
- Highlight the positives of giving up. A great way of convincing someone to give up their car is to explain how much money they’ll save. Other forms of transport could be cheaper if they’re not covering many miles.
- Use examples. Ask them to recall whether they’ve recently felt scared when driving, and perhaps give your own examples of when you thought they might be struggling. Finding out that someone else has noticed their difficulties driving may be the wake-up call they need. But remember it can be a difficult realisation, so always be sympathetic.
The best alternatives to driving
Giving up driving doesn’t mean giving up your freedom. There are practical travel alternatives and they often end up being cheaper than running and maintaining a car.
- Buses. This is a cheap way of getting around, especially once you reach state pension age. You’ll also be able to apply for a bus pass, travelling locally for free during off-peak times.
- Trains. For substantial discounts on fares, you can apply for a senior railcard from the age of 60.
- Walking. Forget about the worries of parking and walk to local places. The exercise is good for you too.
- Lifts from family and friends. People around you are probably more than happy to help. For example, if a neighbour does a weekly shop, why not ask to catch a lift from time to time?
- Community transport. Local charities often run free transport services for things like hospital appointments. For instance, The Royal Voluntary Service provides around 87,000 journeys to hospital and GP appointments every year, as well as to the shops or into town.
- Taxis. When you consider how much you save on the costs of running a car, the occasional taxi suddenly doesn’t seem that expensive.
- Get online. You don’t always need to visit the shops in person. You can do a lot of daily chores online, including food shopping and paying bills.
Once you consider the options available to you, hopefully you’ll become more comfortable with the transition of relying on a car to using other forms of transport.