Alabama rot (cutaneous and renal glomerular vasculopathy) is an increasingly common disease in dogs which causes damage to the blood vessels of the skin and kidneys. Dogs with the disease can suffer from skin ulcers, acute kidney failure and even death.
A brief history of the disease
The first reports of Alabama rot came from the US state of Alabama in the 1980s. At the time only greyhounds were affected, but it’s now known that many breeds can contract the disease.
Alabama rot is a relatively new disease to the UK, having been first reported here in 2012. There have been only 153 confirmed cases between November 2012 and March 2018.
The majority of cases come from England, but the disease has also been confirmed in the rest of the UK.
Is my dog at risk?
With only 153 confirmed cases of Alabama rot in the UK as of March 2018, the risk of your dog getting the disease is small.
However, because the cause of the disease remains unknown, every dog is potentially at risk.
There do appear to be some factors that could increase the risk to your dog. Cases of Alabama rot are most common in Dorset, the New Forest, Wiltshire, Sussex and Surrey. There’s also a suggestion that a degree of seasonality applies to the disease, usually occurring in the winter and spring.
There have also been reports linking the disease to dogs who were walked in muddy or woodland areas.
However, no clear patterns or causes have been identified.
Keen to reassure dog owners, The Forestry Commission said: “Many thousands of dogs are walked in the countryside every day and it is important to remember that only a very small number of dogs have been affected.”
The group hasn’t found any places of increased risk.
What are the symptoms of Alabama Rot?
Skin lesions are the most obvious symptom to look out for, often with swelling or a patch of red skin that can open and become an ulcer.
Your dog might lose some hair around the area or start licking the wound, which will be sore. These patches of inflamed skin are commonly found on:
- Lower legs
- Lower body
Not all dogs will go on to suffer kidney failure, but those that do will take an average of three days from developing skin lesions to presenting symptoms. However, kidney failure can occur anything from one to 10 days after skin lesions develop.
If you spot lesions on your dog’s skin it’s best to act quickly as kidney failure can be fatal. Signs of kidney failure include:
- A lack of appetite
- Being sick
If your dog appears to be under the weather, speak to your vet as quickly as possible.
Bear in mind that skin sores and signs of kidney failure could be caused by other, more common problems. For example, skin sores could be due to an allergic reaction and kidney issues are often a symptom of a problem in the urinary system.
Can I prevent my dog from getting Alabama rot?
It’s hard to prevent a disease for which there’s currently no known cause. As such, no vaccination against the disease exists.
Though not proven, some experts believe it’s spread through muddy walks, and recommend that you wash your dog when you get home. Washing your dog is also a good time to give them the once-over and check for signs of redness or sores.
As a precaution, you may want to avoid taking your dog out for a walk in an area with a reported case of the disease. You can search for confirmed cases here.
When should I take my dog to the vet?
It's best to get an expert opinion if you're worried, especially if your dog has a skin sore and you're not sure how they got it. You can book an appointment at your local vet practice.
What’s the prognosis?
Sadly, Alabama rot is fatal in nine out of 10 dogs. It’s not only the cause that’s unknown, but also the cure. Sometimes treatment works and sometimes it doesn’t.
David Walker is one of the few experts in Alabama rot and leads a lot of research in the UK. He stresses that statistics might not tell the whole story.
“The disease can only be definitively diagnosed after death by looking at kidney tissue under the microscope,” he wrote.
This means some cases go unconfirmed or deaths are attributed to Alabama rot without a post-mortem.
Other experts say treatment for the disease tends to be successful in 20-30% of cases. Changes in blood results and knowledge of the types of skin lesions can help vets identify Alabama rot, but some vets can go their whole career without treating a single case.
Research into the disease continues, with the hope of one day discovering the cause and being able to create effective treatments and even a vaccine.
Insurance for your pets
Alabama rot is a rare disease, but it’s important to know what to look for and have pet insurance in place, just in case your dog does get sick and needs treatment. With Direct Line pet insurance, you could benefit from:
- Customisable cover and up to £8,000 towards vet fees for each condition
- Cover for complementary treatments including physiotherapy and hydrotherapy
- Up to £1,000 for advertising if your dog goes missing
Frequently asked questions
There’s no known cases of it spreading to humans or other animals like cats or rabbits.
Yes. Experts in Alabama rot in the UK, Anderson Moores, say you shouldn’t be avoiding any particular areas.
It varies. Your dog might need antibiotics for the lesions. If they go on develop kidney failure, intensive treatment and management will be needed. Your dog could stay with the vets for a number of days, or you could be referred to a specialist.
Yes. Although a lot about Alabama rot is a mystery, experts are researching the disease to develop new diagnostic tests, investigate the cause and create better treatments. The Alabama Rot Research Fund (ARRF) was established to raise awareness and funds for such research.